The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah.Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus".

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According to the Hebrew Bible, he destroyed Solomon's Temple and exiled the Jews to Babylon.

The defeat was also recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles.

At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country.

Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza.

‎‎), is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip Jewish presence in the Land of Israel has persisted over the centuries.

The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith.

From 1920, the whole region was known as Palestine (under British Mandate) Other notable Paleolithic sites include caves Tabun, Qesem and Manot.

The Roman Empire invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean Civil War.