But for young women, sexual relationship often comes attached with an emotional blackmail, something along the lines of: “If you’re good to me, I’ll marry you, but if you don’t do as I say, I will leave you and let everyone know you’re not a virgin.” Said Melia Christo, a lecturer at the Faculty of Psychology at UI: “In the teenage brain the amygdala, which regulates emotion, develops faster than the pre-frontal cortex, which rules executive function.

Boys are more likely to be beaten by their parents and physically bullied by their peers.

This explains why it is hard for men to find solution to a problem that does not involve violence.

"Our findings underscore the critical need for early intervention and prevention with families who are at-risk due to alcohol problems.

Mothers with alcoholic partners are especially in need of support," the lead author suggested.

By analysing data that was collected regularly over the course of their lifespan, Livingston was able to identify factors that led to some of the teenagers to be involved in abusive dating relationships.

"It appears that family dynamics occurring in the preschool years and in middle childhood are critical in the development of aggression and dating violence in the teenage years," she added.

They still believe in their own ‘personal fable’ that they won’t suffer the consequences of what they do, hence things like unprotected sex.”The late teens or early 20s is also a time when many young men and women are struggling with self-esteem issues of body image and confusion over gender role, like how to be a good partner, and how to be ideal women and men.

Our traditional gender construct plays another big role.

(For more information on what constitutes an abuse, please see the infographic below).

To most Indonesians, only when there is physical violence does an abuse occur.

Kristi Poerwandari, a psychologist and gender study professor at UI, said men tend to see emotions like fear, shame and sadness as feminine, so when they feel frightened or threatened, the emotion easily shifts to anger, which is perceived as masculine.