A couple years later, it is about 10% effort and 90% thinking.A Greenland Paddle can effectively make it more difficult to pull extraordinarily hard during a roll recovery.

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But for most of us, traveling below hull speed is plenty good enough for a day’s workout. There is no way that the human physiology can continue to pull to the full potential of the “euro” paddle for more than a few minutes.

And the Greenland Paddle is plenty efficient to achieve 3-4 miles per hour – hour after hour. Even then, the muscles are operating anaerobicly and will quickly need to get rid of their lactic acid debt.

For some kayakers, this wrist rolling is an aggravating repetitive motion and causes pain or numbness of the hands.

No studies have been done yet to find out if wrist rolling is related to carpal tunnel syndrome.

But paddling any distance never leads to a planing hull speed.

Racers push this hull speed at its upper edges, trading a lot of energy for going a little faster than the hull speed.

After moments of rest, the series of anaerobic pulls then continues.

For this kind of play, the whitewater kayaker needs to have a big shovel to pull hard against the water – for a moment.

That skinny blade is plenty good and pretty efficient in transforming energy from your muscles into forward motion.