The seed for this history grew from conversations with my mother, Ydolina Lopez Saenz, beginning in 1980 and continuing for six years.In evening porch conversations, she described how her family lived during her childhood and what she had learned from her father, Andres Saenz Pedro, who had shared with her his life experiences and those of his father, An­tonio' the original family settler.

Their recall of events served in many instances not only to verify but also to elaborate on important details that were missing from other sources. from Alice, Texas, for interviews from 1985 through 1991.

Amazingly, details that were gathered from three sources completed some stories from beginning to end. He displayed a remarkable memory in relating events from his childhood, detailed conversations with his father, Francisco L6pez Sr., about his grandfather Jose Antonio L6pez, and extensive information on Texas history· -including facts about the Spanish Colonial era in Texas. Hector Lopez, an attorney from Alice and the son of Francisco L6pez Jr., for material from conversations with his father and also for his words of encouragement for me to continue with this history. Marina Lopez Lopez from San Diego, Texas; and Ricardo Gonzalez Lopez from Corpus Christi, Texas.

His story is about the region in the counties of Jim Hogg, Brooks, and Duval.

These counties were carved out of Nueces County in the 19th century.

He was born on August 9, 1927, at the Rancho de Santa Cruz, in southern Duval County, Texas. This was followed by another nineteen years as owner of Falfurrias Auto Supply, Inc. Having developed a keen sense of history while a member of the S. They include Fermina Guerra, author of "Me xi­can and Spanish Folklore and Incidents in Southwest Texas"; Jovita Gonzalez, author of "Social Life in Cameron, Starr, and Zapata Counties"; Emilia Schunior Ramirez, author of Ranch Life ill Hidalgo County after 1850; and Roberto M.

His parents were Praxedis Saenz and Ydolina Lopez, both raised on early Texas ranches. For personal avocations, Andres taught Catholic Christian doctrine for twenty years and is a member of the Spanish-American Genealogical Association (S. Villarreal, who wrote "The Mexican-American Vaqueros of the Kenedy Ranch: A Social History." Most of these other writers pro­duced their works as master's theses at various Texas universities under the tutelage of professors such as J. Andres Saenz did not have the advantage of a college education.

Ranch life -- Texas -- Duval County -- History -- 19th century. Mexican Americans -- Dwellings -- Texas -- Duval County -- History -- 19th century. Ball, Executive Director Sarah Massey, Project Director Sandra Hodsdon Carr, Editor and Designer Laura Howard, Photo Technician ISBN 0-86701-075-4 The images herein and many other images of Texas subjects are in the Institute's Photograph Collection; call (210) 458-2298 for information about obtaining copies.

Architecture, Domestic -- Texas -- Duval County -- History -- 19th century. Early Tejan.o Ran.ching ill} Duval ~pun-ty The f'an'lily History of Ranc..:Sal'l, Jose al'ld £1 Fre Sl'lillo _ by AI'ldres Sael'l Z Early Tejano Ranching in Duval County The l-antily Hist:ory of Ranchos San Jose and El Fresl'lill0 by Andres Saenz [email protected] Early T~jano Ranching in Duval County The Family History of Ranchos San Jose and EI Fresnillo by Andres Saenz Edited by Andres Tijerina Cover painting by Charles Shaw Copyright © 1999 The University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio 801 South Bowie Street, San Antonio, Texas 78205-3296 Rex H.

Printed in the United States of America Contents Editor's Comments Acknowledgments Preface Introduction Genealogy Charts Author Andres Saenz's Ancestor Chart Pedro L6pez, Maternal Grandfather, Family Group Jose Antonio L6pez, Maternal Great-Grandfather, Family Group Jose Miguel L6pez, Maternal Great-Great-Grandfather, Family Group Andres Saenz, Paternal Grandfather, Family Group Eleuterio Saenz, Paternal Great-Grandfather, Family Group Maps Las Villas del Norte Ranchos San Jose and El Fresnillo and Vicinity Rancho San Jose 1 Travels North :l Moving North :l Homesteading on Rancho San Jose 4 Sheep shearing 5 The Children of Jose Antonio L6pez and Maria de los Santos (, Antonio's Last Days at San Jose 7 The Droughts of 18 H A Victim of Rabies 9 Pedro and Feliciana L6pez on Rancho San Jose iii vii ix xi xiii xvii xviii xix xx xxi xxii xxiii xxv xxvi xxvii 3 7 10 13 15 18 20 23 24 - ( Don Josesito and Dona Chavela 27 II Jacales de Lena 28 l:l Ranch Houses of Sillar 31 13 Neighboring Ranches 34 4 Ferman L6pez, Trail Boss on Cattle Drives 36 IS Planting of Crops in the 1900s 38 The Schools around the Year 1900 39 1'1 Padre Pedro 41 H Constructing Wells on the Ranch 42 19 Raising Cotton 45 ~o Tick Fever 46 ~i Dog Protection at Night 47 2J Shopping Trips to Town 48 ~3 Old Types of Beds and Bedding 51 24 Making Soap and Washing Clothing 53 25 Slaughtering a Hog 55 :lfl Food Preparation 57 '.).'1 Use of Corn 59 : It Wild Plants Used at San Jose 61 :l9 Horseback Racing and Music 63 3(.

An Homage to Don Y rineo Salinas 65 J La Voz del Cielo 66 ~J2 Young Boys Taken by the Indians 67 ]l EI Guajillo Community 68 3d Continued Development at San Jose 69 : IS Curanderos and Doctors 73 36 Don Eufemio, the Veterinarian 77 Tl The Children of Pedro L6pez 78 38 Partition of Pedro and Feliciana's Land 80 ~J9 The Catholic Church on Rancho San Jose 81 Rancho El Fresll}illo 1 The Founding of Rancho El Fresnillo 85 .

Andres attended a ranch school on Rancho Vera Cruz, graduating from San Diego High School in 1945. Nonetheless, he wrote with the same meticulous care and research of the other authors. Saenz and the other writers had a deep personal desire to preserve the his­tory of their Tejano heritage-a heritage missing in the textbooks found in public schools.